Fire and Movement

The following Fire and Movement course information was obtained from the 2012 Officer Candidates School Student Outline.

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE

1. Given an individual weapon, as a member of a unit, while wearing a fighting load, perform individual movement techniques, by arriving at the objective. (0300-PAT-1005)

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. As a member of a patrol, negotiate obstacles to arrive at an objective. {0300-PAT-1005a)
2. As a member of a patrol, move tactically to arrive at an objective. (0300-PAT-1005b)

1. INTRODUCTION TO MARINE CORPS TACTICS

a. Marine Corps tactics begin at the most basic of levels, the buddy-pair within a fire-team. The elements used in enemy engagements are gained through both lessons-learned and war fighting theory. It is the ground gained through small unit rushes that ultimately destroys enemy personnel and removes the threat. Marine Corps tactics build upon a foundation of communication and individual movements during active engagement. Individual movement techniques are used in conjunction with a buddy, to create the buddy-pair. Though the fire team is the smallest tactical unit used in the Marine Corps, the buddy pair is the smallest unit of movement and is also the most important. Without proper movement techniques, we would not be able to move forward and gain ground on the enemy. The techniques covered during Officer Candidates School build upon themselves allowing you, the candidate, to gain a greater knowledge and skill base for future missions.

b. Since the introduction of modem arms and ammunitions, tactical movement and communication have become essential lo small units. Without proper communication, there is a breakdown in the tactical effectiveness of any unit, large or small. This is emphasized to ensure that communication is being upheld and, like the tactics taught, is built upon. War is simple; however, being able to execute with tactical proficiency during the stresses of war is difficult. Once the basics are mastered, the evolution of tactics and communication becomes second nature.

2. BUDDY PAIRS

a. The smallest Marine tactical unit is a Fire Team. Fire Teams are comprised of four Marines, but even that small unit is further divided into two Buddy Pairs. A Marine never goes anywhere without a buddy. The first day you arrived at Brown Field, you were assigned a Battle Buddy. In or out of any tactical scenario, move with your buddy. When in the field, use your buddy to cover you and cover for your buddy whether or not rounds are coming at you.

b. A buddy pair consists of two Marines. This is the smallest number of Marines you will ever move with. The easiest and most basic of movements are done in buddy pairs. A buddy pair ensures that in any situation, there will be one weapon oriented towards a threat. A Marine moving alone is almost completely vulnerable; movement as a pair ensures that there is never an unprotected moment.

(1) The covering (stationary) Marine’s responsibility is to ensure that their weapon is always oriented towards the threat.

(2) The moving Marine’s responsibility is to ensure that they move in such a way that they do not mask the fire of their covering partner.

3. NEGOTIATING OBSTACLES

a. Movement: Movement, even when not under fire can still be dangerous. Always ensure that you are watching out for each other. Moving through obstacles is one case where a Marine has to drop their guard to maneuver through the obstacle, so cover is needed from your buddy to ensure that you negotiate the obstacle safely

(1) The high step is one way to get over low lying obstacles. When someone is going over a low lying obstacle or a possible minefield, the high step can be used. While using the high step, utilize the toe-heel-feel method while picking and putting your feet down. This will ensure good footing when stepping and the ability to feel for any booby traps that might be set.

(2) While you are doing the high step, you can be vulnerable due to slow movement. Your weapon should be at the ready, but it is still necessary for your buddy to cover you while you move.

(3) Once you get past the obstacle and set in, provide cover for your buddy who has yet to negotiate the obstacle.

b. Wall: Another obstacle that you will encounter is a wall. In this case, wc arc specifically referring to relatively low walls that you can climb over, as opposed to going around.

(1) It is a common adversary tactic to emplace anti-personnel devices on top of, or behind walls. Therefore, it is important that you visually inspect it for any type of trap. If your visual inspection is negative, you should physically check it as well. A technique referred to as the “Piano-Feel” is the best way to do this. Carefully run your hands across the portion of the obstacle that your body will be touching. Do so lightly with your fingertips, almost like you are playing the piano.

(2) One member of the buddy team will cover for the other while a piano feel is done over the portion of the obstacle that his/her body will touch when going over.

(3) Once that member’s portion is clear, they will cover for the other member to clear his/her area.

(4) Once both have cleared their area, one member will go over the obstacle while the other covers for their movement. The candidate who goes over must maintain a low profile in order to stay low and out of the sights of the enemy.

(5) Once the first candidate gets over the wall they will set in and provide cover for his/her buddy to negotiate the obstacle. Again a low profile should be maintained by the candidate going over the wall.

c. Crawling: There are two types of ways to crawl through obstacles; The High Crawl and Low Crawl.

(1) The first type of crawl is the high crawl. Use this when you have some cover or concealment, but not enough to stand. Of the crawls, this is the one to use when speed is essential but you must maintain a low profile.

(2) When conducting the high crawl, you will use a hamburger grip on the weapon. You will have 6 points of contact, your elbows, knees and toes. If your buddy is next to you, you should point your weapon in the opposite direction of their position to avoid “flagging.”

(3) The other type of crawl we will use is the low crawl. You will use this when there is no cover or you are going through a low lying obstacle. Use this crawl when speed is not essential, but cover is.

(4) You will put your head in the dirt and face the opposite direction of your weapon. We do that so that your Kevlar will take the brunt of the blow if you hit a mine or booby trap. Your weapon will go over your back and it will be UNSLUNG!

(5) Grasp your weapon by the sling swivel. ENSURE THE SLING IS OVER YOUR BACK NOT AROUND YOUR ARM. Use your non-firing hand to probe for mines and booby traps.

4. MOVING UNDER FIRE

a. The first thing to do when moving under fire is to TAKE COVER and FIRE BACK! You must get the enemy’s head down by gaining fire superiority.

b. Once you gain fire superiority, begin to close on the enemy’s position by using buddy rushes. It is essential that you communicate with your buddy to ensure you are coordinated so that someone is firing and someone is moving. This helps to maintain your tempo, and keeps the enemy off balance.

(1) Once you begin rushing the enemy, try’ to make yourself a hard target. Don’t stand and rush towards the enemy for extended lengths. Use the ditty “I’M UP – THEY SEE ME – I’M DOWN.”

(2) Once you are down and in place, let your buddy know they can move by yelling “SET” and beginning to fire.

c. If you begin to receive fire:

(1) Immediately hit the deck and find some type of cover or concealment.

(2) Let everyone know to get down by yelling “CONTACT FRONT/LEFT/RIGHT/REAR” and begin firing.

(3) Let your buddy know you are about to rush by yelling, ”Candidate________rushing.” This lets your buddy know they need to fire in order to cover your movement

(4) Once you are up, use the ditty “I’M UP – THEY SEE ME – I’M DOWN.”

(5) While rushing, place your weapon on SAFE and assume the ready carry. Do not fire during rushes.

(6) Make absolutely sure you stay in your lane so that you don’t get in your buddy’s line of fire.

(7) Once the first team member who rushed is set, the buddy will do the exact same thing. Communicate that you are about to rush. Use the mnemonic I’M UP – THEY SEE ME – I’M DOWN to move, get down and yell set once you are ready to resume firing.

(8) This process will continue through the objective, and 10-20 meters beyond.

5. RELOADING OR WEAPON MALFUNCTIONS

Next, what will you do if your weapon malfunctions or needs to be reloaded?

a. If you run out of rounds or have a weapons malfunction, it is essential that you let your buddy know. If you’re out of rounds you will yell “RELOADING,” if your weapon is jammed you will yell “WEAPON DOWN” Your buddy will respond by responding “COVERING” to let you know that they won’t be moving and will continue firing, allowing you to fix the problem before rushing continues.

b. Once the weapon is back in action, resume firing and let your buddy know “WEAPON UP.” Once this happens, the buddy pair can continue to advance.

6. IMMEDIATE ACTIONS UPON ENEMY CONTACT

a. ADDRAC: ADDRAC is a fire command given to point out to other members the location of an enemy force, when engaged. The ADDRAC is important because it gives an accurate description of the enemy as well as giving commands to the rest of the unit members.

(1) Alert. Alert all members of the unit to be ready to receive further instructions.

(2) Direction. Orient the unit to the location of the enemy.

(3) Description. Give the unit a brief and accurate description of the target.

(4) Range. Give the unit information needed to adjust point of aim.

(5) (target) Assignment. Tell the unit who is to fire on which target.

(6) (fire) Control. Give the unit the command to commence firing. Return fire and gain fire superiority.

b. Example ADDRAC

A — Fire Team!
D – Contact Front!
D – Enemy troops in the open!
R — Range 20 meters!
A – Prepare to Rush!
C – RUSHH!

c. Buddy rushes. Begin the “Buddy Rush” once instructed by the control portion of the ADDRAC. The rush will continue for 10-20m past the objective area.

d. Hasty 180: The hasty 180 is to maintain forward security in the event of an enemy counter attack. It will be established ten to twenty meters past the objective, where the rushes were completed. Appropriate sectors of fire from will be established from 9-3 utilizing the clock method.

e. Consolidated 360: Once it is determined that there is no chance of enemy counter-attack the unit members will move into a consolidated 360, again ensuring unit members are assigned appropriate sectors of fire. Once consolidated, the senior unit member will retrieve ACE reports from all of his team members.

f. ACE Report: The ACE report is used to gather pertinent information from all unit members.

(1) Ammunition: Available ammunition counts.

(2) Casualties: List of all casualties and level of severity.

(3) Equipment: Gear accountability.

REFERENCES:
1. Scouting and Patrolling – MCWP 3-11.3
2. Marine Rifle Squad – MCWP 3-11.2
3. Rifle Marksmanship – MCRP 3-01A

2 COMMENTS
  • anonymous
    Reply

    Your example ADDRAC is a little off, but its not wrong. The “Fireteam” in the alert is not needed. The purpose behind the ADDRAC is to give quick and concise directions to your unit while taking enemy fire.
    “Contact” is that Alert. It lets all members of the unit know that something is going down at that moment. Keeping in mind that the term “Contact” is either visual or physical interaction with the enemy or friendly forces.
    Reference: Tactics Instructor

    1. USMC Officer
      Reply

      Your comment is correct. OCS has it’s own way of teaching things that tries to simplify doctrine as much as possible to facilitate understanding. I imagine they teach the verbal alert since most of the time candidates aren’t going to be shooting blanks while rehearsing.

      More realistically, on contact you would send those 3-5 rounds down range to achieve fire superiority. The unit would automatically orient in the direction of fire and wait for actions from the base unit.

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